of the North Manchester Historical Society, Inc.

Early Photography in North Manchester

by Dr. L. Z. Bunker
The Daguerreotype

Daguerreotypes ranged in size from less than an inch - meant to be inserted into lockets and pocket watches to the largest the author has seen which were five by six. The small ones had no cases. Groups were uncommon but one of the large ones I saw was of a family and its slave and the other a small school class of about a half dozen pupils. The average daguerreotype was two by three inches; some larger were three by four.

The metal sheet was enclosed in an imprinted gutta-percha box lined with red or orange velvet and fastened on one side with metal hinges and on the other with a brass hook and eye. I have never seen one with a makers name, patent mark or identification. It is almost impossible to date them. They continued to be made long after they were succeeded by ambrotypes and wet plates. But most genuine daguerreotypes date to the 1870's.

Early Photographers in North Manchester

C. E. Crill was an active photographer in this town in the first decade of the 1900's. He had a small studio on West Main Street. He was especially interested in panoramic views and was said to have climbed into trees, scaled the steeple of the Lutheran church and into third story attics to get photos of trains, circus parades and Decoration Day exercises or other town activities. The family was crushed by the death of a little daughter from a childhood disease. They believed she might have been saved by more advanced medical treatment in a metropolitan center and soon moved to Detroit. There Mr. Crill soon became a prominent industrial photographer.

We have one early (maybe l880's) print marked "g. Rice, photographer Mill St. N. Manchester, IN." No information has been found about this person and we don't know if he might have been Arthur Rice's father. He is not buried around here. Arthur Rice was a painstakingly careful workman. He spared no time or effort to get a good result. He must have had a way with children. The studio walls were covered with enchanting little faces as opposed to the stubborn and sulky faces in some studios. He took pictures of newlyweds, graduating classes, soldiers going to World War I and World War II, groups at Manchester College and anyone who wanted their features recorded in time.

Mr. Rice's "Big Four" passenger train crossing the Eel River bridge was the perennial souvenir postcard of the community for many years but he did not often do panoramic cards.

Lozier Rice followed his father's footsteps and turned out careful workmanlike pictures. His pictures included funeral pictures of corpses in coffins. I've never seen others do that here but it is very frequently done in the south. When he closed the studio he was succeeded by Jim Brown. He died in 1968.

We should give a kind thought to the solitary artists who worked to preserve the visages of our forebears. Perhaps others can add to this information.

The Big Four Tragedy from
Memories of Manchester

by Otho Winger

Along with the comical we must remember some of the tragedies of college life. It was one evening in the fall of 1913. A dozen or more of our boys started for Urbana to play basketball. They had secured a school bus and driver for the trip. W.W. Peters, then an upperclassman and college tutor, was in charge of the boys. As they crossed the Big Four Railroad at North Manchester, they were struck by a freight engine. The school bus was demolished, and the boys were thrown here and there.

Mr. Peters phoned me that a terrible accident had occurred and that I should come at once. The only conveyance I had was an old bicycle. I rode that as fast as possible to the Big Four and arrived just in time to go with the boys to the Wabash Hospital. The engine and caboose made this trip in record time.

Charles Kreigbaum had his leg cut off between the knee and the hip. I held his leg and talked with him during the trip. Nearby was Carman Blough with his right arm cut off at the shoulder. Some others had minor injuries. Mr. Peters was sitting by Mr. Kreigbaum when the crash came but escaped serious injury.

The boys were patient while the surgeons operated and dressed their wounds. Even while in the operating room, they began to think and talk about their future, one without an arm, the other without a leg. Mr. Kreigbaum has suffered much of the time since then (writing in 1939). No one can appreciate what this calamity has meant to him. Mr. Blough completed a college course, went to the university. He is now considered an expert in tax economy. For many years he was adviser to the governor of Wisconsin. He spent some time in government service in Washington, D.C. He is now (1939) a special accountant in a Chicago firm and draws a large salary. His plucky, successful career has shown what one could do with a great handicap.

There is one incident connected with this that I remember quite well. A good sister, a friend of mine, spoke to me about it. She didn't believe the boys should play basketball. She said she thought it was judgment for them being engaged in such foolish work. However, the next Sunday an old brother and sister, very faithful to their church, were struck by a train near here, and he was instantly killed. Then I asked this sister how she explained that. She had no answer to the question.

Farrier or Blacksmith

By L. Russell Long

The following article, which first appeared in the February edition of this newsletter, is being reprinted in its entirety. A portion of the original article was inadvertently omitted, a victim of the communication age, lost in etherspace.

Was he a farrier or a blacksmith? Let's try the dictionary. It describes a Farrier as a man who shoes horses: Blacksmith it describes as a smith who works in iron, including the making and fitting of horseshoes. Apparently the two are interchangeable. The men in my story considered themselves farriers doing smithy work on the side.

There was a time when the trade described above, was an essential business in every community, including North Manchester. The work of village smithy could be classed as an art considering what a trained person could do with a piece of iron. The tools of the trade consisted of a forge, equipped with a bellows, an anvil, sledges, numerous hammers of different types and tongs of several sizes. The forge was fired by coal, with a bellows that pushed oxygen into the embers, raising the temperature to a high degree. Iron was heated to a red hot condition making it pliable. Thus the artisan could pound it into the desired shapes on his anvil.
The farrier I best remember was my grandfather, John H. Parmerlee who learned his trade from his father, William. Both called North Manchester, home. John had shops in several locations over the years; the northeast corner of Main and Market, the southeast corner of Main and Maple and on Walnut at the present location of the Inn. In his later years he moved to a barn on his property. This was located on South Market.

Alvion Bugby apprenticed under John and later had his own shop just north of United Technology's building on Mill Street. The foundation of his building can still be seen by a passerby.

The annual highlight of John's career was the county fair held in North Manchester. Here he set up shop in the Horse Barn and shoed the harness racers. Incidentally, John and Alvion both owned Pacers. John's was named Velox and was considered one of the fastest around at that time. Granddad, however, hired drivers rather than racing himself. I can still remember seeing Alvion driving his horse around town.

Being mindfull of a horses ability to kick, John never allowed us kids to get very close when shoeing a horse, but from a distance I was amazed, as a child to see what he could do. Watching him form a horseshoe to fit each individual hoof made me realize that farriers were also artists.

Kids of that day, for the most part knew the Parmerlee compound to be a place to get a drink. Flowing wells were numerous on south Market, but the Parmerlee well was the only one visible from the street. Many a youngster stopped there to get a drink on their way to and from the Pony Creek swimming hole. I'm sure there are several people who still remember the swimming hole and the Parmerlee well.

John retired in 1936 at age 73. He passed on in November, 1939. Alvion Bugby was the last active farrier or blacksmith in town. He passed on in 1948. Yes, another colorful page in North Manchester history is no more. Blacksmiths can still be seen demonstrating their craft at festivals and village museums, but to see a man (or woman) shoe horses is a rare scene today. The Historical Society owns a picture of John's shop on Main and Market. Both John and Alvion are in the picture.

Early Highways of Commerce

Information for the following article was taken from Helm's History of Wabash County published in 1884 as well as from a Journal article.

After Manchester had been located and a regular trading post established, every year brought new families to the settlement in considerable numbers, and by the year 1844 all the available Government land in the vicinity of Eel River was taken up by actual settlers. There were no roads or other public highways, if we except the Indian "trails" leading from Eel River to Logansport, and from Eel River to Fort Wayne. Families newly arrived would cut their way through the timber to the lands which they had selected for homes, and in a short time these paths would again become overgrown and traces of them lost. These were the first roads; but they served only a temporary purpose and never became public highways.

Scarcely more interest is now manifested in a prospective railroad than was evinced when it was noised about that the settlement on Eel River was to be connected with LaGro, on the Wabash, by a public highway. The initiatory steps in this matter were taken some time in 1838 or 1839. A road for a mail route was to be opened through the woods from LaGro to Liberty Mills.

Volunteers started from opposite end of the proposed route, and taking the section lines for their guide, cut away the timber on each side of the road, until the party advancing southward from Liberty Mills and Manchester met the party working northward from LaGro, and the road was open and ready for travel. The principal object in opening this road was to make a highway for the transportation of the mail, which was carried on horseback from LaGro to Liberty Mills. It was called the "Mail Trace," and was long known by that name.

In earlier times, all the surplus products of this locality were taken by wagon to LaGro, which town enjoyed the advantage of being located upon the Wabash & Erie Canal, the great commercial thoroughfare of its time. ""It was a hard day's drive" says the JOURNAL'S correspondent, "to take twenty bushels of wheat to La Gro (a distance of twelve miles); but the increasing demands of trade made better means of intercourse with commercial centers a prime necessity, and the consequence was a plank road was built to LaGro about the year 1850, which so much facilitated the transportation of commercial products, that one team could do the work of four under the old state of affairs. Great as was this improvement at the time, with the opening of railroad communication it sank into insignificance, and today is practically abandoned as a commercial highway between the two towns."

In 1850, the project of a railroad was first agitated in the township. North Manchester was to be placed in direct communication with Detroit, and for awhile it looked as though the hopes of the citizens were to be realized. A large amount of grading was done, but suddenly the company failed, and the railroad project lapsed into inactivity. Twenty years passed, and the enterprise was revived and prosecuted vigorously. In 1871 it became evident that Manchester was to have two railroads, and the town received a new impetus. The Detroit, Eel River and Illinois Railroad was completed to this point in that year, making its terminal connection at Logansport late in 1872; and the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Railroad was completed at very nearly the same time, with its southern terminus at Wabash.

The bustle and activity consequent upon the construction of these two roads marked a new era in the history of the town, and infused a commercial life into it unknown before. Up to that time, surrounding towns had drawn from Manchester a large amount of trade that was properly hers; but when it became evident that she could offer inducements equal to any of her neighbors, this trade was not long in finding its legitimate channel. Manchester rapidly rose in importance, and has never receded from her position as the second town in the county, and one of the most enterprising and flourishing towns in Northern Indiana.

A letter written by Samuel Heeter in August of 1871 complains that "worke is plenty money scarse labor high from 175 to 200 per Day the railroaid is the cose of aul this the railroid is in ful Blast now of aul the Digon and Scraching & Choping this Bets aul the general talke is the railroaid Here now the graiding is aul Don East But not aul Don West yet the iron is laid Within l 1/2 mile of liberty mils & Wood hav bin finished to manchester til now But they run out of iron the last noos was last evning that ther Was a car loid of iron in the road coming and if that is the case the cars Vil com to our town By next Saterday the Boys is fixing to Hav a Big Diner When the Roaid is Don to town the North & South Roaid Vil Bee finished to manchester this fall yet When Wee get 2 roaides it Vil giv our town a Hist."
The railroad company offered everyone a free pass to Detroit. Heeter's response was favorable: "if wee liv and kep vel til it gets warm wee air going to hed quarters. It is 196 miles up there."

In July, 1876 the JOURNAL made a positive assessment. "Five years ago the surrounding county seats captured most of the country trade, almost to our very doors -- being about to undersell and overbuy us, because of better facilities for transportation. But since the completion of our railroads and numerous mechanical institutions, our merchants are reaching out fully half way in all direction, and our largely increased prosperity has made serious inroads upon the trade heretofore enjoyed by our neighbors. In point of numbers, our business and manufacturing establishments will compare favorably with those of our more pretentious neighbors and another fact worthy of note - and one that speaks volumes in our favor, is that amid the crash of business all around us, no house established in business here previous to the panic of 1873 has failed in consequence of it."

The Other Trip to Buffalo

by Ferne Baldwin

The Manchester College Men's Basketball team went to Buffalo, New York this year to compete as one of the final four in Division III competition. They went with a record of 30-0 and went into the championship game with 31-0. Manchester as National Runner Up in NCAA Division III with a record of 31-1 for the 1995 season is a never-to-be-forgotten moment in history.

But there is another story of a trip to Buffalo for a Manchester team which deserves to be remembered. A different team; a different sport; a different era; but also a successful trip.

Sixty men answered the call for the first scrimmage of Manchester's 1938 football team. This team faced an interesting schedule. Most thought it was the toughest schedule ever for the Manchester team. There were seven Indiana conference games and an inter-sectional fracas with the University of Buffalo; a there game on October 8. Perhaps it should be noted that the first and seconds all were attired in new uniforms; black satin in the backfield and gold satin in the line.

It was decreed that not more than 30 could go on the three-day expedition to Buffalo and the competition was torrid according to OAK LEAVES. Meantime, there were games to play with Valpo and Earlham. Manchester had never been beaten by Valpo and they maintained the record by winning 14-13 even though five times during the game the Valpo eleven reached the Manchester fifteen-yard line and failed to score. Earlham was the victim of a 27 - 0 score as Manchester won its nineteenth straight game. The Quakers tried: nine passes but none completed.

Then it was Buffalo. Twenty-three men had been chosen to make the trip. It was the first a Manchester football team had ventured beyond the borders of the state. A special car had been reserved on the Nickel Plate Railroad for the trip. The team boarded the train at Sidney at 12:06 p.m. and reached Buffalo at 10:05. Rest was the only item on the agenda until Saturday afternoon when the men visited Niagara Falls. The game started at 8 p.m.

The OAK LEAVES headline was succinct. BURT'S MEN RUN ROUGH-SHOD OVER STRONG BUFFALO TEAM. Buffalo was surprised to have a much smaller school defeat them 21 to 6. The game was played on the field at Tonawanda, New York since the Buffalo field had no lights. A crowd of about 3000 fans was willing to cheer for Manchester almost as much as for their own team.

The first Manchester score was on a pass from Lieberum to Eikenberry. Brandon kicked the extra point. Next score came after an 80-yd uninterrupted drive down the field. Milliner punched it across from the 1-yard line and Brandon did his thing. The only Buffalo score came at the beginning of the second half at the end of a persistent drive down the field and on the fourth down. The final Manchester tally was after a 71-yd run down the sidelines by Lieberum and the usual conversion by Brandon.

The Spartans came home to face Ball State the next Saturday. Ball State considered Manchester to be of the "corn-cob league" and were preparing to eliminate them from their schedule even though Manchester had won five and tied one out of their last seven contests. The Spartans outplayed the Cardinals in the first half but the depth of their bench became obvious in the second half and the final score was 20 - 14 in Ball State's favor.

No list of those who went to Buffalo can be found but it is believed that all of the following went along with unknown others:

William Ruppert - freshman
Charles Beck - junior
Howard Filburn - sophomore
Robert Robinette - junior
Rowan Howe - junior
Paul or Ralph Fry senior and junior - or maybe both
Sam Schlemmer - sophomore
Merlin Eikenberry - sophomore
William Milliner - freshman
Lewis Cameron - freshman
Carl Sargent - sophomore
Hubert Cordier - junior
Bob Brandon - freshman
Don "Hank" Lieberum - sophomore
Richard Logan - sophomore

First game out of state; first game under lights and a victory. The other trip to Buffalo was special too.

Farm Production Report for Chester Township - 1881
7505 acres in wheat produced 97,567 bushels
5972 acres in corn produced 179,517 bushels
1384 acres in oats produced 40,146 bushels
1647 acres in meadow produced 1647 tons - hay
115 acres in Irish potatoes produced 11,500 bushels
2 acres in sweet potatoes produced 240 bushels

Henry S. Hippensteel - Educator

by Ferne Baldwin

Henry S. Hippensteel was born in a log cabin in Wabash County and finished high school in North Manchester. He obtained degrees at State Normal School, Terre Haute, Indiana University and Earlham College. He received an MA from Earlham. He taught four years in district schools, was principal one year at Servia and then was principal three years at Manchester. He then began a period as Superintendent; first in North Manchester for five years, at Roann one year, at Eaton, Ohio two years and at Auburn for four years.

In the fall of 1909 he was employed to head the department of Professional Reviews and Observation at Stevens Point Normal in Wisconsin. Soon after, he was appointed head of the English department at that school and held that position until he came to Manchester College in the early spring of 1916, as a successor to Professor Sandifur.

The College newspaper of April, 1916 says, "Prof. Hippensteel is now a part of the school. He has arrived, met all of his different classes, has signed matriculation cards, has given his first chapel talk, and has attended a reception given in his honor by the faculty. He is living one block south of the college. He seems to enjoy the work here, and every student in his classes is enthusiastic in his praises for our new Professor. We are congratulating ourselves in our good fortune of having Prof. Hippensteel on our faculty."

Hippensteel, his wife, Laura and their two sons, Clark, aged l5 and Vincent, 20 months settled in a home at the corner of Miami and Bond as he began teaching at the College. But within a few weeks he became quite ill and underwent an operation in Fort Wayne for gall stone and appendicitis. He did not recover. He was about 50 years old.

His various educational assignments had made him widely known and respected. Both Manchester College and the schools of the town were closed the day of the funeral. His death was a loss to Manchester College and to the teaching profession in the State of Indiana.

Mrs. Hippensteel later moved to Bloomington and taught there. Her older son, Clark died while a University student at the age of 20. The younger son, Vincent, was a very active student at Indiana University as a writer for several publications. He had also done some writing for magazines. He accidentally shot himself while on his way to target practice and also died at aged 20. Laura was left alone.

Mrs. Hippensteel returned to North Manchester and lived in the house on Miami Street renting part of the house to students. In 1957 she sold the house and went to live with a sister in Ohio.

Tom Marshall's Last Speech

In the spring of 1925 the commencement speaker for Manchester was unable to come and a hasty search was made for a substitute. Thomas Marshall was available and arrangements were made.

Otho Winger wrote about the event: "Mr. Marshall came. He was a very sick man; we could see that. But he braced up for the occasion. Not many people will forget the opening remark of his address, when he said, 'I am out of politics now and can afford to tell the truth.' Tom was known for just such statements as that. Even though he was a politician, he gave an address filled with wise sayings and wise advice. It was a great event to have a native son of Manchester return for our commencement."

"This was the last address of this noted Hoosier. He went from here to his home in Indianapolis and then on to Washington, where he took sick. In ten days he passed away. The last speech of his career was given in the city of his birth."

James Whitcomb Riley Anecdote

Mrs. M. R. Gardner was the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. R. F. Blount. When she was a girl she had an interesting experience with James Whitcomb Riley. At that time Mr. Riley was merely known as "Jim Riley," a tramp painter. He became well acquainted with Mrs. Gardner's brother, and together these two did much sign painting over the country. Mrs. Gardner, who was then a little girl, was very fond of Jim Riley. She wanted to go in the buckboard with Jim and her brother, and one day they let her do so. As she sat down on the seat, her long braids of hair fell over the back of the seat, and the ends fell in Jim Riley's paint bucket. So when the trip was over, her mother had to spend some time removing the effect of Riley's paint.