NMHS Newsletter, May 2015
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON LOT #23
Oppenheim Buildings, 120-122-124 East Main St.
by John Knarr
The removal of the siding and overhang from the old Oppenheim buildings exposes the brick fronts at 120-122-124 East Main Street. The Center for History has decided to repair and restore the brick façade to an earlier appearance. The intent of this article is to review and summarize the history and ownership of Lot #23 (Original Plat of Manchester) and its buildings. The larger structure housing the North Manchester Center for History and its museum consists of approximately three different divisions to Lot #23. Please consult the previous issue of the NMHS Newsletter to view an image of the Original Plat with numbered lots. At the NMHS website, a larger version of this plat has been posted (NMHS Newsletter-February 2015). The following research offers historical context and sheds light on the timelines of the Oppenheim family ownership of the various properties situated on Lot #23.
October 12, 1835. Original land entry: United States to Peter Ogan, 59.75 acres, the Fractional N.E. ¼ of Section #5 in Township #29 North, Range #7 East. Recorded in Tract Book, Page 182, Wabash Co. Recorder’s Office.
March 30, 1837. Patent Deed, United States by Martin Van Buren, President, to Peter Ogan. Ogan’s full payment was recorded at Wabash Co. Courthouse, September 1, 1891, in Deed Record #53, Page 227. The land conveyed to Ogan was described as North of the Eel River in the District of Lands subject to sale at Fort Wayne, Indiana, containing 59.75 acres, “To have and to hold the same, together with all the rights, privileges, immunities and appurtenances of whatsoever nature thereunto belonging, unto the said Peter Ogan and to his heirs and assigns forever.”
September 14, 1837. Peter Ogan and his wife Mary Ann Ogan sold Lot #23 for $51.00 to Clark Williams. Recorded May 8, 1838, Deed Record “B”, Page 230. Clark Williams was born in Clark County, Ohio, in 1819. The Williams family can be traced in the Quaker Monthly Meeting records for Clark County OH and Wayne County IN. Maurice Place’s wife was a Williams, as was the Levi Coffin’s wife. Coffin was known for his Underground Railroad activities, as was Maurice Place. The Williams and Place families were pioneer families having Quaker roots, and settled in the North Manchester area. Several other families with Quaker roots also purchased land here and began commercial or agricultural activities--Thorn, Cowgill, Beauchamp, Frame, Antrim, Willis, Kester, Hayward, Martin, Carver, and many others. The Harter brothers married Quaker (Cowgill) sisters; the Comstock brothers (Thomas and William) married a sister of William Thorn and a daughter of Maurice Place, respectively. Peter Ogan’s wife and John Ogan’s wife were from Warren County, OH, and some Quaker families from that area also migrated here. Thomas Comstock’s journals relate the times that he and his wife visited Friends and Quaker relatives who lived near Selma in Clark County, Ohio. As a traveling Methodist minister, Comstock occasionally was invited to speak at their Meeting Houses.1 William Thorn married Elizabeth Neff, who was born in Preble Co., OH. William Thorn (d. Oct. 4, 1860) is buried in the Quaker Cemetery at Selma, Clark County, Ohio. Brothers William and Isaac Thorn, along with John Comstock and Comstock’s son-in-law, John J. Shaubert, formed a private detective service to combat an organization of horse-thieves, burglars, and counterfeiters extending from Ohio across Indiana into Illinois.”2
December 22, 1840. Clark Williams sold Lot #23 to Thomas Thorn for $50.00. See Deed Record “E”, Page 130 and Deed Record #30, Page 54. Thomas Thorn died in 1847. The Thorn children (William, John, Isaac, Hannah, Sarah, Elizabeth) signed a Quitclaim Deed to their mother Nancy W. Thorn on May 4, 1849. The Thorn and Frame families had Quaker roots. William Thorn and Mahlon C. Frame opened a dry goods and grocery store at the northwest corner of Main and Walnut streets on Lot #24. The Thorn family was associated with the Plainfield Monthly Meeting (Ohio, 1834) and the Green Plain Monthly Meeting (Ohio, 1837).
February 3, 1854. Nancy W. Thorn sold Lot #23 to Joseph C. Marshall and Daniel M. Marshall for $360.00. Deed Record “P”, Page 173. Thomas Riley Marshall was born in the house on March 14, 1854, shortly after the deed was signed.
February 7, 1856. Daniel M. Marshall and wife Martha A. Marshall sold their undivided half of Lot #23 for $2000.00 to Joseph C. Marshall. Deed Record “R”, Page 240. The Marshall brothers, Daniel, Joseph and Milborn, were postmasters and presumably operated the North Manchester Post Office in the Marshall House, 1853-1860. [Research conclusion of Meredith Runner, July 20, 2005; NMCH files.]
March 28, 1863. Joseph C. Marshall and wife Phebe sold to Milborn S. Marshall Lot #23 for $1800.00. Deed Record “Z”, Page 338. Note: In legal documents, Milborn was variously spelled Milborne; Melbourn; Milbourn; Milborn S. Marshall was commonly known as M.S. or Samuel Marshall. See affidavit of Samuel Hamilton, October 25, 1921 in Miscellaneous Record “Z”, Page 152. Daniel Marshall was a physician and Tom Marshall’s father. Daniel M., Joseph C., and Milborn S. Marshall were brothers and sons of Riley Marshall. Joseph C. died on July 21, 1864, after having been elected a Republican state legislator in 1863. His wife Phebe died on November 30, 1867. Milborn was executor of her estate and guardian of her two children. [Estate of Phebe J. Marshall, No. 795, Filed December 11, 1867] Milborn’s wife Catharine was a daughter of Mark Stratton and the oldest sister of Gene Stratton-Porter. Catharine filed for divorce in 1879, and Milborn moved to Michigan and remarried. Both sisters died in the 1920s while living in California.
April 7, 1865. Milborn S. Marshall and wife Catharine E. Marshall sold Lot #23 to Dr. Andrew J. Sprague for $2500.00. Deed Record #3, Page 406. Milborn S. Marshall held the mortgage for Sprague to purchase Lot #23. Mortgage recorded June 20, 1865 in Mortgage Record “G”, Page 169. Milborn Marshall assigned this mortgage to Joseph C. Singer on April 24, 1865. Singer then filed a complaint in 1866 to foreclose on the mortgage to the Spragues. On January 26, 1867, a Sheriff’s Sale was held. Joseph C. Singer bid $700 and no person bid more. On August 29, 1868, John M. McKahan, Sheriff of Wabash County conveyed a Sheriff’s Deed to Singer. Deed Record #9, Page 178.
April 21, 1869. Joseph C. Singer and wife Elizabeth Singer sold for $500.00 to Milborn S. Marshall the eastern side of Lot #23: Thirty (30) feet front and entire depth off the east side of Lot #23. Deed Record #11, Page 23. Lot #23 thereby was in 1869 subdivided. In 1870 and 1871 further subdivision took place. The Marshall House stood on the east side of Lot #23 (124 E. Main St.), and was moved by Milborn to the northwest corner of Third and Market Streets to make way for construction of a commercial building.The North Manchester Journal confirmed (April 2, 1908) the location for the Marshall House: “It stood on one of the lots occupied by the Oppenheim store.” Meredith Runner’s research on the Marshall House places it at the front of the lot and not in the rear, as others have claimed (Billings, Dr. Bunker).We do not know when the so-called “Wool House” standing at the rear of the lot was built. That structure was later integrated into the merchandise building, and is now part of the museum. [See also the 1875 Historical Atlas of Wabash County, showing the buildings on North Manchester’s Main Street.]
May 28, 1869. Milborn S. Marshall and wife sold for $500.00 the eastern 30 feet of Lot #23 to George W. Lawrence. Recorded January 29, 1870. Deed Record #11, Page 24. Lawrence erected in 1871a 23-foot wide brick building. For a while, starting in 1870, Lawrence partnered with John Whisler: “They own one of the handsomest mercantile establishments in Wabash county or in Northern Indiana. The line represented is dry goods, groceries, clothing, boots and shoes, hats and caps, carpets, notions &c.” [The Manchester Republican, February 12, 1874] Whisler was married in 1852 to Catharine Signs. He was born in Dauphin county, PA, March 8, 1818. In 1838 he came to Marion, IN, with an uncle, remaining there until 1840 when he located at Liberty Mills in the tailoring business. In 1851 Whisler moved to North Manchester and opened a general store. It was reported that “he accumulated considerable wealth.” [North Manchester Journal, May 9, 1895, Obituary].
May 10, 1870. Joseph C. Singer and wife Elizabeth Singer sold to Christian Shively, George A. Rhodes and John H. Shively (one undivided one-third to each) the middle section of Lot #23, described as follows: 25 feet front, commencing 30 feet west from the southeast corner of said lot; thence west 25 feet and the entire depth north of lot, the lines running parallel with lines of said lot. Consideration $575.00.
May 25, 1871. Singers sold to Christian Shively, George Rhodes and John H. Shively for $500.00 the west part of Lot #23, being 24 feet in front from the southwest corner, and the entire depth of lot. Consideration $500.00. In 1872 and 1873 the Shivelys and Rhodes sold their respective shares of the mid-section and westernmost section of Lot #23 to David Gripe. See Deed Record #15, Page 121, and Deed Record #16, Page 371. Note: The width of these three parcels of property on Lot #23, from west to east, measured, respectively: 20 ½ feet; 24 feet; 30 feet.
February 22, 1872. George W. Lawrence & wife Jennie C. Lawrence conveyed to John Whisler for $400.00 that part of Lot #23 commencing 7 feet west of the southeast corner of the lot. The Whisler purchase added the 7-foot strip off Lot #23 to real estate acquired on adjacent Lot #24. The Whisler interest was acquired by Lawrence, and then conveyed to Augustus C. Mills in 1886. See Deed Record #14, Page 409, and Deed Record #42, Page 151. Note: George W. Lawrence died December 9, 1894 and his wife Jennie C. Lawrence died on February 6, 1900. Elizabeth Mills was their daughter and sole heir.
February 17, 1904. John W. Domer, Administrator of the Estate of Jennie C. Lawrence filed a petition in the Wabash Circuit Court to sell real estate. Defendants included The Lawrence National Bank of North Manchester; Elizabeth H. Mills, daughter of Jennie Lawrence; Augustus C. Mills, the husband of Elizabeth H. Mills; Benjamin Oppenheim, Isaac Oppenheim and Pauline Oppenheim, composing the firm of B. Oppenheim & Company. The Estate Administrator John W. Domer made the following observation regarding an Oppenheim lease on the property: “…the said Oppenheims, whether as individuals or as a firm plaintiff can not state, are asserting some interest or right in said last above described part of said Lot No. 23 on account of a pretended lease, which pretended claim or right plaintiff avers is unfounded, and said defendants, either as a partnership or as individuals, are made parties hereto that their said pretended rights under said alleged lease may be adjudicated by the Court.”
March 8, 1904. The court found “the lease of the defendants Oppenheim upon part of said real estate is junior and subject to the right of said administrator in said real estate, and the said real estate should be sold free and discharged of said lease.” See Probate Order Book #24, Pages 476-477.
April 30, 1904. Sale of real estate by John W. Domer, Administrator of the Estate of Jennie C. Lawrence to Harmon Naber. Naber paid $3125.00 cash to Domer for the property: The undivided one half of part of Lot Number 23, commencing seven feet west of the southeast corner of said lot, at the center of a brick wall of a building now situated on said lot, along the center of said brick wall, to the north line of said lot; thence west twenty-three feet; to the center of the west wall of the brick building thereon; thence south along the center of said west wall to the south line of said lot; thence east along the south line of lot 23 feet to the place of beginning, intending to include herein the west half of the east wall and the east half of the west wall of the brick building situated on the above described real estate.
Note: On April 30, 1904, Harmon Naber also bid $2975.00 on the remaining undivided one-half of Lot #23. On June 6, 1898, The Lawrence National Bank of North Manchester had filed a complaint against Elizabeth H. Mills, Jennie C. Lawrence & Augustus C. Mills, demanding the sum of $6000.00 including interest and attorney’s fees. The defendants had signed a promissory note on April 1, 1897, promising to pay the plaintiff the sum of $5000.00 with interest. Plaintiff said that said sum and interest were due and remained wholly unpaid. The defendants’ real estate was then sold at a Sheriff’s Sale on May 2, 1905. The Sheriff of Wabash County accepted Harmon Naber’s bid of $2975.00.
May 5, 1904. John W. Domer, Administrator of the Estate of Jennie C. Lawrence conveyed to Harmon Naber an Administrator’s Deed. Consideration $3125.00. Recorded May 12, 1904. Deed Record #84, Page 493.
May 5, 1904. J. W. Domer conveyed an Administrator’s Deed to B. Oppenheim & Co. Consideration, $2500.00, for part of Lot #23. See Deed Record #84, 486. The real estate: The undivided one half of part of In Lot Number 23 in the Original plat to the Town of North Manchester—Commencing 30 ½ feet west from the southeast corner of Lot 23; thence 24 ½ feet to the center of the west wall of the Brick Building now thereon; thence north with the center of said wall to the north line of said Lot; thence east 24 ½ feet to the center of the east wall of the Brick Building thereon; thence south with the center of the East wall of the Brick Building thereon to the place of beginning. See Deed Record #84, Page 486.
June 14, 1905. The Sheriff of Wabash County conveyed to B. Oppenheim & Co. part of Lot #23. Consideration, $2325.00. See Deed Record #87, Page 64. Note: In 1904 The Lawrence National bank had recovered by judgment of the Court in the action against Elizabeth H. Mills et al., the sum of $5008.76 plus $225.45 for costs. At a Sheriff’s Sale, B. Oppenheim and Company bid $2325.00 for the undivided one half of Part of Lot #23, described as follows:—Commencing thirty and one half feet west of the southeast corner of said lot; thence West twenty four and a half feet to the center of the west wall of the brick building now thereon; thence north to the north line of said lot; thence East twenty-four and a half feet to the center of the east wall of the brick building; thence South to the place of beginning.
January 21, 1921. Isaac Oppenheim sold to Benj. Oppenheim for $3350.00 his undivided interest in part of Lot #23 (also included in transaction were Lots 15 and 21 in Fairview Addition). See Deed Record #117, Page 158.
September 30, 1921. Harmon Naber & Orpha O., his wife, conveyed to Ben Oppenheim for $7500.00 the brick building with 23 feet frontage, built commencing 7 feet west of the original property line for Lot #23. See Record #118, Page 143.
June 11, 1872. George A. Rhodes and wife Ellie E. Rhodes conveyed to David Gripe the undivided 1/3 part of the middle section of Lot #23. Consideration $3300.00 Recorded July 26, 1872. Deed Record #15, Page 121.
February 26, 1873. David Gripe to Christian Shively and John H. Shively, Quitclaim Deed, Consideration $3300.00. Recorded January 14, 1876. Deed Record #21, Page 499. Property conveyed represented the middle portion of Lot #23. Note: The construction of a common use stairway off of Main Street was referred to in the conveyance. Listed in the 1875-1876 Swartz, Tedrowe & Tilford’s Indiana State Directory: “Shively & Co., general merchandise.”
April 6, 1880. Christian Shively and wife Barbara; John H. Shively and wife Augusta A. conveyed to Henry H. Arnold the same real estate as described immediately above. Consideration $4300.00. Recorded May 22, 1880. Deed Record #29, Page 590.
July 23, 1880. Henry H. Arnold and wife Annie C. conveyed to George W. Lawrence, same real estate as described immediately above. Recorded December 1, 1881. Deed Record #33, Page 47. Consideration $4330.00. The G.W. Lawrence & Co. was a Dry Goods and Clothing Store that advertised in 1880 that they had “the Largest Stock of Dry Goods, Notions, Etc., Etc. in Wabash County.”3
March 23, 1886. George W. and Jennie C. Lawrence conveyed to Lawrence National Bank of North Manchester the above described property for $6,000.00. Recorded April 13, 1886. Deed Record #42, Page 408. In 1887 the seven feet at the east side of Lot #23 was integrated into the Lawrence National Bank building.
March 10, 1879. David Gripe conveyed to Daniel Sala the 20 ½ feet in width off the west side of Lot #23. Consideration $1800.00. Deed Record #27, Page 237. In the 1880 Federal Census, Daniel Sala was identified as a “Merchant D.G.” [Dry Goods]. In the 1880-1881 Indiana State Gazetteer and Business Directory, the entry was: “Sala & Smith, dry goods.”
March 10, 1882. Daniel Sala and wife Ruanna sold to Levi J. Noftzger the west side of Lot #23, the same real estate as described immediately above.. Consideration $3000.00. Recorded March 22, 1882. Deed Record #34, Page 27. In 1883 Noftzger moved his hardware business from the location on the south side of Main Street to rooms on the north side. 4In the 1884-1885 Indiana State Gazetteer and business Directory, the entry was: “Noftzger, L.J. & Co., hardware.” A new brick building was erected in 1887 at 120 East Main Street.5
December 20, 1893. Levi J. Noftzger and wife Mary C. Noftzger conveyed to Charles F. Noftzger the west side of Lot #23. Consideration $10,000. Recorded February 19, 1894, Deed Record #59, Page 355. Charles F. Noftzger entered into a promissory note with Francis M. Eagle, and promised to pay to the order of Francis M. Eagle on December 20th, 1894, the sum of $4500.00 with interest at the rate of 8% from December 20, 1894. This note was secured by the real estate.
December 17, 1904. Susan H. Eagle filed a lawsuit against the Noftzgers on December 17, 1904, in the Wabash County Circuit Court, a complaint to foreclose on the Noftzger mortgage. Francis M. Eagle, her husband, was by then deceased (October 15, 1899). Besides Charles Noftzger and his wife Laura E. Noftzger, Levi J. Noftzger and wife Mary Noftzger also became defendants in this case. It was claimed that subsequent to the execution of said mortgage, on August 7, 1894, Charles F. Noftzger and his wife had conveyed by warranty deed said real estate to the defendant Levi J. Noftzger. The plaintiff Susan Eagle was awarded $8214.00 in principal and interest, as well as $657.12 in attorney’s fees. The Noftzger mortgage was foreclosed and the real estate sold at a Sheriff’s Sale. The real estate affected was the 23 feet and 8 inches off of the west side of Lot #23.
May 20, 1905. Sheriff’s Sale. Sheriff’s Deed conveyed to May E. Curtner. Consideration $7500.00. Recorded June 7, 1906. Deed Record #89, Page 62. May E. Curtner was the daughter of Francis and Susan Eagle. May Eagle Curtner died on April 30, 1910; John M. Curtner was her surviving husband.
December 30, 1929. The Estate of John M. Curtner leased to The Northern Indiana Power Company the two story brick building known as the Noftzger Hardware Building, situated on the northside of Main Street at the corner of the alley. See Miscellaneous Record #1, Page 8. Lease was for a period of 10 years from the 1st day of October 1930, at a rental of $1100.00 per annum, payable in monthly installments.
April 25, 1936. Administrator of the Estate of John M. Curtner conveyed an Administrator’s Deed to Lewis P. Urschel and L. Harold Urschel for the west 23 feet and 8 inches of Lot No. 23. On May 24, 1956, Lewis P. Urschel conveyed his undivided ½ interest to L. Harold Urschel.
May 24, 1956. Lewis P. Urschel, a widower, conveyed to L. Harold Urschel his undivided one-half interest in the West 23 feet and 8 inches of Lot #23.
March 24, 1960. L. Harold Urschel leased to the Public Service Company of Indiana for five years. Consideration $10,500.00. “For use as an office, salesroom, storeroom and garage in the conduct of the public utility business of said Lessee or its successors or assigns.” Recorded April 26, 1960. Miscellaneous Record #17, Pages 243-247.
December 29, 1964. L. Harold Urschel et ux sold to Jay Phillip Oppenheim the West part of Lot #23. In 1969 Oppenheim remodeled the three buildings.The west wall between the Ladies department and the building formerly occupied by Public Service of Indiana Company was removed on the first floor level as well as on the lower basement level. Oppenheim decided to tie the three buildings together with a “Georgian style front...reminiscent of colonial Williamsburg.” What Oppenheim considered to be a “timeless design” [News Journal, February 27, 1969] has now been removed in favor of the 1920s look.
January 23, 2001. J. Philip Oppenheim Trust conveyed Trustee’s Deed to the North Manchester Historical Society, Inc. Real estate included the above described properties situated on Lot #23. Deed Record #314, Pp. 81-82.
Summary. The Oppenheim family succeeded in amalgamating three different brick commercial buildings into a single store. The North Manchester Center for History acquired this combined structure in 2001. Prior to 1904 the Oppenheims were leasing buildings standing at 122 and 124 East Main. The Oppenheims had earlier leased and then purchased two different buildings on the adjacent Lot #22 [see NMHS Newsletter, February 2015]. Oppenheim’s Department Store had originally been founded by Jacob Oppenheim in 1876 at 114 East Main Street. When Jacob arrived in North Manchester, there were already thirteen competitive dry goods stores already established in the community, but “he chose his site and hung out his shingle.”6 Jacob died in 18837, so his widow Pauline (Goldman) and son Ben Oppenheim operated the store. Ben’s brother, Isaac Oppenheim, bought Pauline’s interest in 1892, and the business name was changed from J. Oppenheim’s New York Cheap Store to B. Oppenheim & Co. In 1901 the Oppenheims were leasing their department store from the Lawrence family. In 1904 the Oppenheims lost their lease rights because of actions taken by the Administrator of the Estate of Jennie C. Lawrence and a judgment by the Wabash Circuit Court. In 1904 and 1905 the Oppenheims successfully bid and purchased the middle building in two separate transactions for a total of $4825.00. Naber paid in 1904 a total of $6100.00 in two separate transactions for the east building standing on Lot #23. The Oppenheims were then able to lease with a different owner (Naber) at 122 E. Main Street. An opening was cut between the two buildings, and this gave North Manchester “the largest store in this part of the state.”8 Oppenheims advertised the “Big Double Store.” In 1921 Isaac Oppenheim sold his half interest to Ben Oppenheim for $3350.00.9 Also in 1921 Naber sold the East Building for $7500.00 to Ben Oppenheim. Consequently, Oppenheim owned both properties beginning in 1921. According to a notarized declaration filed at the Wabash County Courthouse: “February 21, 1921. Ben Oppenheim being duly sworn on oath says that he is the sole owner and proprietor and constitutes the sole member of a business conducted by him in the town of North Manchester, Wabash County, State of Indiana, in the name of B. Oppenheim & Company, and as such is engaged in the mercantile business of buying and selling dry goods, clothing, carpets and general merchandising. And that he further certifies that there is no other person connected with him in the conducting of said business who has a financial interest therein. That the only person having an interest in said business is Ben Oppenheim, North Manchester, Indiana, and none other.”10 In 1925, for a period of time a partnership11 was formed between Ben Oppenheim and his son, Jean J. Oppenheim.12 In 1964 Phil Oppenheim, the son of Jean J. Oppenheim and the great grandson of the founder of the business-Jacob Oppenheim, purchased from Harold Urschel the West Building. Phil Oppenheim then tied the three buildings together with what he referred to as a “Georgian” façade. With the removal of that particular façade, the brick fronts are again unveiled and visible.
1 During a research trip in March, 2015, the author found Thomas Comstock’s Diary (1852-1857) in the Archives at DePauw University and is presently transcribing and annotating Comstock’s detailed entries in this fascinating journal. Diaries of two of Thomas’ siblings—William and Jane Comstock-- have been donated to the North Manchester Center of History.
2 T.B. Helm, History of Wabash County (1884), p. 288. The William Thorn house built circa 1847 is located at 105 South Elm, N. Manchester.
3 North Manchester Journal, July 29, 1880. Lawrence’s enterprise was started in 1866; in 1870 a partnership was formed with Whisler. Lawrence & Whisler was described in 1874 as owning “one of the handsomest mercantile establishments in Wabash county or in Northern Indiana. The line represented is dry goods, groceries, clothing, boots and shoes, hats and caps, carpets, notions &c.” See The Manchester Republican, February 12, 1874.
4 North Manchester Journal, May 10, 1883.
5 North Manchester Journal, June 9, 1887.
6 NMHS Newsletter, August 1985.
7 Jacob Oppenheim was buried in Detroit.
8 North Manchester Journal, October 19, 1905.
9 Isaac (Ike) Oppenheim and his wife Etta were buried in New York City.
10 Notarized Declaration, Wabash Co. Partnership & Firm Record, Book I, p. 8.
11 Notarized Declaration, Wabash Co. Partnership & Firm Record, Book I, p. 71, June 11, 1925.
12 Ben Oppenheim died on January 31, 1950. Ben’s son Jean preceded him in death, passing away on April 4, 1949. Ben Oppenheim and his wife Nettie (Kahn) are buried in the Rodef Sholem Cemetery in Wabash, Indiana. Jean J. was their only child. Jean attended a preparatory school in Chicago and graduated from Columbia University, New York. See “Eleven Decades Great!” NMHS Newsletter, August 1985; also, Joseph Levine, From Peddlers to Merchants (1979).
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Excerpted from Thomas Comstock’s Diary--
Monday, August 2, 1852. My morning lesson was the 12th chapter of Ezekiel. Though the vision had departed still the word of the Lord comes. The prophet typifies the overthrow & flight of Jedekiah by gathering in his stuff and departing in haste etc. Went up to J.J. Shaubhuts, assisted him to kill a sheep & took dinner with him, Anna, Eliza, William & J. Sprague. After dinner I rode out to Colletts, Huffmans, Parrots & Heckathorns hunting hands to mow. In the evening I helped Ross assort our sheep, after which I assisted J.J. Shaubhut in taking some honey.