Source: The Manchester Republican,
March 26, 1874
--This place now
boasts of having fourteen doctors.
Source: The Manchester Republican,
September 11, 1873--Ads by Physicians
DRS. WINTON & WADDELL, PHYSICIANS and
SURGEONS, North Manchester, Ind. Prompt attention given to
professional calls day or night. Office in the building
formerly occupied by Dr. H. Winton.
DRS. E.W. & J.W. FORD, PHYSICIANS and
SURGEONS, North Manchester, Ind. Special attention given to
the treatment of all Chronic Diseases. OFFICE--Room formerly
occupied by Drs. Ford & Hubbard.
BODINE & ELSON, SURGEON DENTISTS. All
work done at reasonable rates, and warranted. Examinations
made free of charge. Office over Noftzger's hardware store,
North Manchester, Ind.
DR. J.H. WADDELL, PHYSICIAN AND
SURGEON, LAKETON, IND. Prompt attention given to
professional calls day or night.
W.T. MENDENHALL, M.D. PHYSICIAN AND
SURGEON, North Manchester, Ind. OFFICE upstairs, Heeter's
block, north side Main street. Residence, two squares north
of the American House.
DR. C.B. RAGER, RESIDENT DENTIST, North
Manchester, Ind. OFFICE in Heeter's block, north side Main
Street. Satisfaction guaranteed.
D. GINTHER, PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
North Manchester, Ind. OFFICE over Noftzger's Hardware
Store. Residence two squares north of the American house, on
the west side of Walnut Street.
J.H. WIRT, M.D., Eclectic Physician and
Surgeon, Having permanently located in Manchester, offers
his professional services to the people of this place and
vicinity. OFFICE--On Main Street, upstairs over H. Mills
grocery store, where he will be happy to attend to all calls
in the line of his profession, at any time, day or night,
when not professionally absent. Residence in Mrs. Miller's
two-story brick building, near the School House, North
Dr. Phillip SHAFFER, PHYSICIAN AND
SURGEON, Liberty Mills, Indiana. Prompt attention given to
professional calls, would request patients with chronic
diseases to call on Saturday, if convenient. Office north
part of town, near the railroad depot, over McGees Furniture
Source: Announcements in The Manchester
Republican, April 30, 1874
Dr. Ginther has removed his office from
Noftzger Hardware building, to the room occupied by Dr.
Waddell over Lowry Brother's dry goods store, where he may
be found, when not absent on professional duty.
A.L. Stephenson has resumed the
practice of Dentistry in all its branches. Office in the
dental room formerly occupied by J.E. Bodine; over Noftzger
& Co.'s Hardware Store.
A MEDICAL HISTORY OF NORTH
Presented by Ladoska Z Bunker,
M.D., to the North Manchester Historical Society, April 9,
When I was asked to prepare a paper on
the Medical History of North Manchester, I thought of the
doctors of my childhood, my preceptors and later
professional associates. Then I thought, the history of the
healing art goes back to the very earliest inhabitants who
were the Woodland People and the Indians.
We know very little of the Woodland
People, so we will move on to the Indian Medicine Man. His
position was often hereditary. Occasionally he was one who
didn’t want to be a brave or fight and so was permitted to
take up other activities. These men were called “berdache”
and wore women’s clothes.
The medicine man traveled to the wigwam
of the ill person and treated him with hot herb teas,
poultices, and inhalations of steam. Hot water was used as
an application to infected wounds and painful joints. Common
ailments among the Indians were wounds and infections,
arthritis, pneumonia, and near drowning, as few Indians
could swim. The Medicine Man was very clever at reducing
dislocations caused by wrestling. He also set bones.
If all his efforts failed the Medicine
Man stayed with his patient and told him about the Happy
Hunting Ground where there was no pain or misery. The
Medicine Men were held in great respect, regardless of the
outcome of treatment.
North Manchester is located in the area
of the voyageurs, the great axis of French exploration and
trade that extended from Quebec and Montreal to New Orleans.
There is a French map of this area as early as 1632. The
first French settlement was in Fort Wayne in 1679, with
traders and trappers reaching this area. The military
brought surgeons with them and so did the English whose
military were here in 1765. Two surgeons to the regiment was
usual. During campaigns more surgeons were added, these
being frequently civilians “on contract”. Their
armamentarium was limited and they treated mostly wounds and
gunshot. They also treated civilians and sometimes Indians.
The State of Indiana was founded in
1816. The southern half of the state was settled first, the
north half being Indian lands, wilderness and a vast swampy
To this area in 1836 came Peter Ogan,
to found the Town of Manchester. There was already a
settlement in Wabash, since 1834, and Wabash County’s first
physician, Dr. Isaac Finley, in that year had a brick house
on Lot 54 at the cost of three hundred dollars ($300).
Dr. Finley was associated with Dr.
James Hackelman. He gave fifty dollars ($50) to the
construction of the first Court House and later contributed
an additional fifty dollars (450) for that, this in 1839.
Much later he was referred to as a respected pioneer.
What was going on in the early 1830’s?
Martin Van Buren was President, soon to be succeeded by the
old Indian fighter, William Henry Harrison. A cholera
epidemic swept over the country and six hundred people were
said to have died in the Fort Wayne area. As recently as
1832 Indiana University in Bloomington was closed due to the
epidemic and the nearby town of Hindustan was wiped out.
A public spirited citizen, Dr. Daniel
Drake, advertised in the Cincinnati papers what to do to
prevent fatalities from cholera, but alas, there was no mail
service and his good advice couldn’t be heeded.
Mail too two weeks to reach the coast
from Fort Wayne. Detroit was the area to which were related,
merchandise came from there and also government and court
officials. Chicago had been a frontier post as recently as
1812, Fort Dearborn, and only recently was becoming a
General John Tipton, also a United
States Senator, was working on plans to remove the dependent
Indians to the western lands, Kansas and Oklahoma. This was
accomplished in 1838.
The Indian Treaty at Paradise Springs
near Wabash in 1826 opened this area for settlement. Fort
Wayne had been under siege by hostile Indians in 1812 but
following their defeat, the Land Office was opened in the
Old Fort in 1816. The earliest land grant that I know of in
this area is dated 1826.
An event that was to make great changes
in this area was the building of the Wabash and Erie Canal
through Lagro, nine miles to the east. The Fort Wayne sector
was begun in 1832 and reached Lafayette July 4, 1843. It was
built by Irishmen with wheelbarrows, and one was said to
have been killed for each mile of construction. Little
regard was given to the health or welfare of the workers.
The State of Indiana had been given
2277 640-acre sections along the Canal, which were sold for
one dollar and twenty five cents (1.25) per acre. This cheap
and fertile land attracted many substantial settlers and
We do not know who was the earliest
physician in North Manchester, but there is a record of the
Upper Wabash Medical Society in 1841, listing as members Dr.
William E. Willis of North Manchester, Dr. C.V.N. Lent of
Liberty Mills, and Dr. Eichholtz of Laketon. Members were
scattered through Marion, Logansport, etc. and since travel
was on horseback, or rarely canal boat or stage coach, it
soon broke up.
I hope these remarks give you a little
background for medical practice in the area. The pioneer was
beset with all the rigors of the violent climate – sunstroke
and fevers in the summer – frost bite and lung fever
(pneumonia) in the winter. He battle against malaria – ague
– and milksickness which came from cows eating poisonous
weeds. The last buffalo in Indiana was killed in 1816 but
there were deer, wolves, wild cats, panthers and venomous
snakes for many years. Along with cholera was typhoid fever.
A smallpox epidemic had decimated the Indians north of here
as early as 1733.
The pioneer worked with oxen and
horses, with primitive tools; firearms were on hand at all
times and there was much violence – fights, stabbings,
shootings, murder and suicide.
The early practitioner coped as well as
he could, without too much training with bleeding, few
medications except quinine, and calomel and a few herbal
remedies. There was no anesthesia and whiskey was the
universal remedy, and anesthetic if need be. There was no
treatment for tuberculosis and many promising young people
died of it. Appendicitis was fatal; hernias could not be
repaired. Few people owned glasses; shoes were made without
rights or lefts and even soap was made of lye and caused no
end of small miseries.
Hot water and home comforts as we know
them were lacking. The pioneer worked hard, suffered much,
and died young.
The first hospital in Indiana was
established at Vincennes in 1787 by Major Hamtramck of the
British Army for his garrison there. This is the only
hospital that we have record of until the State Lunatic
Asylum was built in Indianapolis in 1845. Care was
custodial. The hard life of the pioneer caused many minds to
fail. In the northern part of the state, goiter was endemic
and caused many wild insanities. This was later prevented by
the use of iodized salt.
The pioneer doctor was limited in his
practice by transportation. He rode horseback and could only
treat people within a short distance. Midwives took care of
childbirth, often with poor results. For many years the
mortality rate for childbirth was one in one hundred. Deaths
occurred from miscarriages, hemorrhages, etc. all
preventable today. Melanie in “Gone With The Wind” was one
of these tragedies.
Many children were left orphans and it
was not unusual for the pioneer to have two or three wives
due to this attrition. Infant and child mortality was
dreadful, many families losing a half dozen children from
An 1854 practitioner in North
Manchester was Dr. Daniel M. Marshall who had an office and
residence at 126 East Main Street. He sold a TB cure and
there are still bottles with his name on them found
hereabout. He was the father of Thomas R. Marshall, the Vice
President under Woodrow Wilson. Dr. Marshall moved to
Illinois and later to Columbia City, Indiana.
Early practitioners were trained by
preceptors, and went a few terms to a medical college with
few facilities. The need for better training became evident
and Medical Societies pressed for continuing training and
The Indiana State Medical Association
was founded in 1849. Later members from North Manchester
were M.O. Lower, C. Waddle, Horace Winton, and
Phil Shaffer. The Wabash County Medical Society was
founded in 1854, with no North Manchester members.
Medicine changed little until the Civil
War. Drugs and treatment were not greatly altered but some
concepts of sanitation and the hospital came into being.
The idea that every medical officer in
the Civil War was a surgeon was wrong. Most treated medical
disorders, typhoid fever, malaria and combat fatigue.
Chloroform anesthesia came into general use at this time.
Dr. C.V.N. Lent was the only physician
in the North part of the county who served in the War
Between the States. He is buried in the Lower Union
Following the Civil War an Army
Hospital in Indianapolis became Indiana’s first civilian
hospital in 1866.
Although there is a record of a hearse
being used in Indianapolis in 1842, there is no record of an
ambulance in use until after the Civil War, probably because
there was no place to take the patient. People were born at
home, suffered and died there.
1876 was the Centennial Year – the year
of the Century as it was called. Here was a great stirring
for better things, inventions to make life better and even
easier. Steam engines, lawn mowers, washing machines, the
telephone, bath tubs and more accent was put on sanitation
As early as 1881 the Naftzger house
here had a bathroom.
There was a revolution in labor – the
McCormick reaper and binder had appeared about 1865; the
steam engine revolutionized wood working and industrial
operations. Two railroads came through North Manchester in
1871. Contact with the outside world was a great
Numerous physicians came to our town,
notably the Doctors Winton, Horace and Charles. They built
their office at 115 East Main Street, now the VFW Building.
Both men, sons of Dr. William B. Winton, a Trustee of Wabash
College, grew up in Crawfordsville, Indiana, and graduated
from Wabash College before they attended medical school. Dr.
Horace Winton graduated from Jefferson Medical College in
1865. It is uncertain if Dr. Charles Winton graduated from
Jefferson, but both were talented physicians for their time.
Dr. Horace Winton lived at 203 S. Maple Street and Dr.
Charles built the brick house on the northwest corner of
Market and Second Street. He later left here for a
successful practice in Detroit. Both residences are still
A pupil of theirs was Dr. Eli C. Ohmart
who was a graduate of the University of Michigan, no date.
Dr. Henry Eichholtz the inventor, was a
medical doctor who felt that practice was too strenuous, so
he devoted himself to inventions and a wood working plant.
Soon after 1876 he constructed a telephone which worked, but
no one else had one so there was no one to talk to. He
solved this problem with an extension and talked to his wife
in their residence.
Other practitioners in the 1880s and
1890s were Doctors Goshorn, John Lower, and M.O. Lower. The
latter was an aggressive practitioner, built a fine home and
office on the corner of Second and Market Streets, northeast
Dr. Lower removed cataracts, tonsils,
and did mastoid operations in homes, and very successfully.
He died in middle life of diabetes, for which there was then
Dr. Barnett had a home and office on
Main and Sycamore Streets, southwest corner.
Two of Dr. Lower’s pupils were Dr.
Frank S. Kitson, a graduate of Rush Medical School and Dr.
Leila Andrews from the University of Michigan. Both Dr.
Lower and Dr. Andrews made calls on bicycles.
Not long after the days of the Oklahoma
Strip, Dr. Andrews moved to Oklahoma City where she became a
Another talented practitioner was Dr.
Loren S. Jordan. He specialized in eye operations, with much
success. He later practiced in Wabash.
Along with trained practitioners we had
a self styled Indian Medicine Man, R.A. Schoolcraft. There
were also powwow doctors and hexers. Medicine shows came in
the summer and put on shows, minstrels and Wild West on
Henney’s Lot on West Main Street.
Dr. Tennant advertised a cancer cure
for skin cancers. It was made of lye and coal tar. It was
inflammable and a a batch ignited, nearly burning the house
In the late nineties Mr. and Mrs. Sam
Oldfather became Christian Science practitioners and set up
a reading room and Church in their barn at the rear of 201
North Market Street. They attracted numerous people who were
displeased with previous medical treatment, also alcoholics
and hypochondriacs. They were reviled by the medical
profession, but probably did more good than harm.
Gradually practice was changing.
Hospitals were established. St. Joseph in Fort Wayne in 1869
and City Hospital in 1878. Mental hospitals opened in
Richmond in 1883 and in Logansport in 1888.
More doctors studied at Medical
Schools. There was a very creditable medical school in Fort
Wayne which later merged with the State School in
Dr. W.W. Keene of Chicago, an eminent
surgeon who was a Civil War veteran, was sometimes summoned
for consultations, but it was usually too late and it is not
known if he ever operated here.
As is often the case, happenings far
away influence the lives and fortunes of persons in small
communities. Before 1881, there was no state effort to
control epidemics, improve sanitation or keep records of
vital statistics. All of this was done, or not done, on a
county level. Records in many places were nonexistent. In
Wabash County, much was destroyed by fire when the Court
House burned in 1871.
The first Indiana State Board of Health
was organized by Dr. Thaddeus M. Stevens in 1881. His
efforts were ridiculed and reviled and many times ignored
but eventually the Board of Health became effective and
vital statistics are available from 1882 on.
State Health Officers labored to
improve public health through quarantines, sanitation and
The Medical Practice Act of 1897
registered physicians, kept records of their training and
helped to unify and improve medical education in the state.
Dr. J.N. Hurty was Indiana State Health
Officer for twenty-five years and labored endlessly for the
public good. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley of Purdue University is
another important name, for his work in the Food and Drug
As there was insistence on better
education of physicians and surgeons, eventually all had
gone to a medical school, first for three years, then for
four. Later pre-medical studies became mandatory.
Internships in accredited hospitals were recommended and by
1910 medical education was greatly improved. All
prescriptions were written in Latin and the medical
community was well educated. The early doctor was greatly
assisted by the pharmacist who prepared potions, pills, and
plasters by hand – also adhesive tape.
Dr. David Ginther was probably the last
to practice here without a formal extended education.
[Ed.: Dr. Ginther did study at
Ensworth Medical College in St. Joseph, MO, 1891] What
he lacked in this was made up by experience and natural
ability. He was probably the most loved and revered of any
of North Manchester’s doctors.
After the turn of the century and
through 1925 these doctors practice in North Manchester:
Frank S. Kitson, Rush Medical School
Leila Andrew, Univ. of Michigan
George L. Shoemaker, Univ. of Pennsylvania
Z.M. Beaman, Ft. Wayne Medical School
Emma Holloway, Johns Hopkins
Ira E. Perry, Indiana University
George D. Balsbaugh, Sr., Indiana University
O.G. Brubaker, Rush Medical School
Earl D. Cripe, Indiana University
There were also some transient
practitioners who came and went.
Hospitals had been established in
Wabash, Huntington, Warsaw, and Columbia City which served
the community well. There never was a community hospital in
Among the capable surgeons in this area
were Doctors G.M. LaSalle, Wallace Grayston, E.B. McDonald,
and Ben Linville.
After 1900 great changes came about –
rigid quarantine and controls checked epidemics. Food and
Drug laws and improved infant care were a great advance.
antitoxin, tetanus antitoxin, vaccine for typhoid
fever, universal vaccination for smallpox all played their
part. Care of tubercuous patients in State Sanatoria reduced
Insulin became available in 1922,
saving many diabetics. Liver extract, B-12 was used to treat
anemias. Blood transfusion and intravenous treatment became
The x-ray though in a primitive form,
was a great advance in orthopedics, chest and abdominal
The change from chloroform to ether
anesthesia made more extensive surgery possible and all
surgery safer. There was much improvement in surgical
Obstetric mortality was reduced.
Improved treatment of wounds and
infections was an impact of the First World War.
Due to all of these circumstances and
better living conditions the life expectancy of 47 years in
1900 was increased to 57 years by 1929.
North Manchester has contributed
largely to the medical profession (29 in all). These are
local persons who were medical practitioners:
2. George K.
4. L.Z. Bunker
5. Eugene Cook
6. Earl Cripe
7. Lynn Hammond
10. Emma Holloway
11. Burton Kintner
12. Elgin Kintner
13. Quentin Kintner
14. Robert Kintner
15. Frank S. Kitson
16. Royal Neher
17. Kendall Neher
18. Ira E. Perry
19. Fred Perry
20. Ellen Ross
21. George Shoemaker, Jr.
22. Algernon Shock
23. Harry Sandoz
24. Louis Sandoz
25. Marcella Sullivan Modisette
26. Philip Smith
27. Joseph Smith
28. Frank Tilman
29. Kenneth Kraning
The presence of Manchester College doubtless influenced
numerous young people to obtain a medical education.
of the North Manchester
Historical Society, Inc. VOLUME XX NUMBER 2
This advertisement and others in this issue
are from the 1875 Atlas of Wabash County.
Drs R.H. Woodward and A. Simon
- Indian Doctors
Dr Woodward was born at Hyde
Park, New York, April 10th, 1832. In 1840 his
parents removed to the then wilds of western New
York where Indians were plenty
and he acquired an early knowledge of their
language, habits and medicines. From 1843 to '46 he
was sent to school in New York, and in 1846, went to
St. Louis where he joined a party of explorers, and
in company with them crossed the continent, finally
reaching Puget Sound on the Pacific coast. Here he
took up his abode with the Blackfoot Indians and
trapped for the Hudson Bay Fur Company, where he
remained as one of the chief's family until 1852
when he returned home in company with some trappers
by way of the Red River of the North, wintering in
its valley. He reached St. Paul in November, 1853
and arrived in New York in December, after an
absence of seven years. From 1854 to '55 he attended
Medical College of Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1856
moved to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, and commenced the
practice of Indian medicine. He carried on a
successful practice there for two years, when he
buried his young wife, and in a distracted state of
mind started for South America, visiting the
principal cities of the coast, and spending a season
in Cuba. He subsequently returned to New York in the
spring of 1860 and started west to visit friends at
Fort Wayne, Indiana, who prevailed upon him to
remain and practice there. In 1861 he married again,
and his practice becoming extensive, he took a
student, who is now his partner.
Dr A. Simon was born in Allen
County, Indiana in 1839 and commenced the study of
medicine under Dr. Woodward in 1861. In 1865 he and
Dr. Woodward commenced practice together in Warsaw,
Indiana and in 1866, Dr. Woodward, finding his
health failing left him in charge of his practice,
and with his wife and child crossed the plains to
the Rocky Mountains, where he renewed many old
acquaintances. In 1867, he was engaged in a trading
expedition which left Denver City, Colorado for the
Red River country. In Wyoming several hostile bands
of Indians were encountered and in one affray Dr.
Woodward was severely wounded but subsequently
recovered so as to proceed with his party.
Communication being cut off in their rear for two
years their friends supposed the party to have been
totally destroyed until their return to Denver City
In 1870 the Doctor was at the
head of another party who travelled through Arizona,
New Mexico, Mexico and Lower California, spend
Page Two May, 2003
ing some time in mining in those
regions with varied success until at last, when they
had made rich and valuable discoveries and seemed on
the point of realizing unbounded wealth, they were
obliged, on account of a general uprising among the
Indians to flee for their lives. Upon reaching the
western terminus of the Southern Pacific Railroad,
the Doctor sent his wife and child home by rail, but
being short of funds, started across the country on
horseback himself. In this dangerous trip the Doctor
became separated from his companions and came very
near being captured by Indians, being hotly pursued
by them until his horse, exhausted by the length and
severity of the long ride, without food and water,
fell dead under him. In the long and tedious journey
which was left him to perform on foot, The Doctor
suffered hardships from which he has never fully
recovered. He finally reached Fort Dodge in safety,
however, from whence he was sent home to Fort Wayne
on a free pass. He found Dr. Simon still practicing,
and prevailed upon him to re-establish the old firm
of Woodward and Simon at North Manchester in 1874.